Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020.

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC
      World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Royal Melbourne Hospital, and Doherty Department, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia
      Virology Department, Public Health Institute of Chile, Santiago, Chile
      Center for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
      School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      After recognition of widespread community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by mid- to late February 2020, indicators of influenza activity began to decline in the Northern Hemisphere. These changes were attributed to both artifactual changes related to declines in routine health seeking for respiratory illness as well as real changes in influenza virus circulation because of widespread implementation of measures to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Data from clinical laboratories in the United States indicated a 61% decrease in the number of specimens submitted (from a median of 49,696 per week during September 29, 2019-February 29, 2020, to 19,537 during March 1-May 16, 2020) and a 98% decrease in influenza activity as measured by percentage of submitted specimens testing positive (from a median of 19.34% to 0.33%). Interseasonal (i.e., summer) circulation of influenza in the United States (May 17-August 8, 2020) is currently at historical lows (median = 0.20% tests positive in 2020 versus 2.35% in 2019, 1.04% in 2018, and 2.36% in 2017). Influenza data reported to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) FluNet platform from three Southern Hemisphere countries that serve as robust sentinel sites for influenza from Oceania (Australia), South America (Chile), and Southern Africa (South Africa) showed very low influenza activity during June-August 2020, the months that constitute the typical Southern Hemisphere influenza season. In countries or jurisdictions where extensive community mitigation measures are maintained (e.g., face masks, social distancing, school closures, and teleworking), those locations might have little influenza circulation during the upcoming 2020-21 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The use of community mitigation measures for the COVID-19 pandemic, plus influenza vaccination, are likely to be effective in reducing the incidence and impact of influenza, and some of these mitigation measures could have a role in preventing influenza in future seasons. However, given the novelty of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertainty of continued community mitigation measures, it is important to plan for seasonal influenza circulation in the United States this fall and winter. Influenza vaccination of all persons aged ≥6 months remains the best method for influenza prevention and is especially important this season when SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus might cocirculate (1).
    • Journal Subset:
      Biomedical; Public Health; USA
    • Instrumentation:
      Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale (CDMNS) (Jenkins)
      Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) (Holmes and Rahe)
      Impact of Events Scale (IES)
      Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) (Bradley and Caldwell)
    • ISSN:
      0149-2195
    • MEDLINE Info:
      PMID: NLM32941415 NLM UID: 7802429
    • Publication Date:
      In Process
    • Publication Date:
      20201126
    • DOI:
      10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6
    • Accession Number:
      145926257
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      OLSEN, S. J. et al. Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, [s. l.], v. 69, n. 37, p. 1305–1309, 2020. DOI 10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=145926257. Acesso em: 1 dez. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Olsen SJ, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Budd AP, et al. Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2020;69(37):1305-1309. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6
    • APA:
      Olsen, S. J., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Budd, A. P., Brammer, L., Sullivan, S., Pineda, R. F., Cohen, C., & Fry, A. M. (2020). Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 69(37), 1305–1309. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Olsen, Sonja J., Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Alicia P. Budd, Lynnette Brammer, Sheena Sullivan, Rodrigo Fasce Pineda, Cheryl Cohen, and Alicia M. Fry. 2020. “Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020.” MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 69 (37): 1305–9. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6.
    • Harvard:
      Olsen, S. J. et al. (2020) ‘Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020’, MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 69(37), pp. 1305–1309. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Olsen, SJ, Azziz-Baumgartner, E, Budd, AP, Brammer, L, Sullivan, S, Pineda, RF, Cohen, C & Fry, AM 2020, ‘Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020’, MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 69, no. 37, pp. 1305–1309, viewed 1 December 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Olsen, Sonja J., et al. “Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020.” MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 69, no. 37, Sept. 2020, pp. 1305–1309. EBSCOhost, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Olsen, Sonja J., Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Alicia P. Budd, Lynnette Brammer, Sheena Sullivan, Rodrigo Fasce Pineda, Cheryl Cohen, and Alicia M. Fry. “Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020.” MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 69, no. 37 (September 18, 2020): 1305–9. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6937a6.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Olsen SJ, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Budd AP, Brammer L, Sullivan S, Pineda RF, et al. Decreased Influenza Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, Australia, Chile, and South Africa, 2020. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report [Internet]. 2020 Sep 18 [cited 2020 Dec 1];69(37):1305–9. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=145926257