Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users.

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      DFG Research Unit Person Perception, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
      Department for General Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany.
      Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Institute of Phoniatry and Pedaudiology, Jena University Hospital, Germany.
      Social-Pediatric Centre and Centre for Adults With Special Needs, Trier, Germany.
      Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, “Otto Körner,” University Medical Center Rostock, Germany.
      Swiss Center for Affective Science, Geneva, Switzerland.
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Purpose: Using naturalistic synthesized speech, we determined the relative importance of acoustic cues in voice gender and age perception in cochlear implant (CI) users. Method: We investigated 28 CI users’ abilities to utilize fundamental frequency (F0) and timbre in perceiving voice gender (Experiment 1) and vocal age (Experiment 2). Parameter-specific voice morphing was used to selectively control acoustic cues (F0; time; timbre, i.e., formant frequencies, spectral-level information, and aperiodicity, as defined in TANDEM-STRAIGHT) in voice stimuli. Individual differences in CI users’ performance were quantified via deviations from the mean performance of 19 normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Results: CI users’ gender perception seemed exclusively based on F0, whereas NH listeners efficiently used timbre. For age perception, timbre was more informative than F0 for both groups, with minor contributions of temporal cues. While a few CI users performed comparable to NH listeners overall, others were at chance. Separate analyses confirmed that even high-performing CI users classified gender almost exclusively based on F0. While high performers could discriminate age in male and female voices, low performers were close to chance overall but used F0 as a misleading cue to age (classifying female voices as young and male voices as old). Satisfaction with CI generally correlated with performance in age perception. Conclusions: We confirmed that CI users’ gender classification is mainly based on F0. However, high performers could make reasonable usage of timbre cues in age perception. Overall, parameter-specific morphing can serve to objectively assess individual profiles of CI users’ abilities to perceive nonverbal social-communicative vocal signals.
    • Journal Subset:
      Allied Health; Peer Reviewed; USA
    • ISSN:
      1092-4388
    • MEDLINE Info:
      NLM UID: 9705610
    • Grant Information:
      This research was supported by a grant from the DeutscheForschungsgemeinschaft to S. R. S. (Grant Schw 511/10-1).
    • Publication Date:
      20200925
    • Publication Date:
      20200929
    • DOI:
      10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026
    • Accession Number:
      145892588
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      SKUK, V. G. et al. Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, [s. l.], v. 63, n. 9, p. 3155–3175, 2020. DOI 10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=145892588. Acesso em: 31 out. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Skuk VG, Kirchen L, Oberhoffner T, Guntinas-Lichius O, Dobel C, Schweinberger SR. Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research. 2020;63(9):3155-3175. doi:10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026
    • APA:
      Skuk, V. G., Kirchen, L., Oberhoffner, T., Guntinas-Lichius, O., Dobel, C., & Schweinberger, S. R. (2020). Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 63(9), 3155–3175. https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Skuk, Verena G., Louisa Kirchen, Tobias Oberhoffner, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Christian Dobel, and Stefan R. Schweinberger. 2020. “Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users.” Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research 63 (9): 3155–75. doi:10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026.
    • Harvard:
      Skuk, V. G. et al. (2020) ‘Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users’, Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 63(9), pp. 3155–3175. doi: 10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Skuk, VG, Kirchen, L, Oberhoffner, T, Guntinas-Lichius, O, Dobel, C & Schweinberger, SR 2020, ‘Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users’, Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 3155–3175, viewed 31 October 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Skuk, Verena G., et al. “Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users.” Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, vol. 63, no. 9, Sept. 2020, pp. 3155–3175. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Skuk, Verena G., Louisa Kirchen, Tobias Oberhoffner, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Christian Dobel, and Stefan R. Schweinberger. “Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users.” Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research 63, no. 9 (September 2020): 3155–75. doi:10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00026.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Skuk VG, Kirchen L, Oberhoffner T, Guntinas-Lichius O, Dobel C, Schweinberger SR. Parameter-Specific Morphing Reveals Contributions of Timbre and Fundamental Frequency Cues to the Perception of Voice Gender and Age in Cochlear Implant Users. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research [Internet]. 2020 Sep [cited 2020 Oct 31];63(9):3155–75. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=145892588