Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers.

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Florida, Tampa
      Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Purpose: Morphology, which is a bridge between phonology and orthography, plays an important role in the development of word-specific spellings. This study, which employed longitudinal sampling of typically developing students in Grades 3, 4, and 5, explored how the misspellings of words with derivational suffixes shed light on the interplay of phonological, orthographic, and morphological (POM) linguistic features as students learn to integrate POM features appropriately to generate correct spellings. Method: Sixty typically developing Grade 3 students were tested using the Spelling subtest from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (Wechsler, 2001) and were divided into superior, average, and poor spellers. Students' spelling skill was then assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition annually for another 2 years. Misspelled derivations from these three testing sessions were analyzed for linguistic feature errors and error complexity/severity. Differences in the integration of POM features across spelling ability levels at Grades 3-5 were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance. Results: Longitudinal results demonstrated POM integration for the development of word-specific spellings involving derivational morphology was in its initial stages over Grades 3-5 and was influenced by spelling ability level. Information from a qualitative analysis revealed considerable variability in how students applied their POM knowledge to spell complex derivations. Conclusions: Word-specific spellings draw on multiple linguistic codes--P, O, and M--and their interconnections. It involves more than an understanding of orthographic rules. Rather, accurate spelling develops through an increased understanding of the phoneme-grapheme relationships as facilitated by the identification of word parts (base + or - affixes) in written language. Educational and clinical implications are discussed.
    • Journal Subset:
      Allied Health; Peer Reviewed; USA
    • Instrumentation:
      Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II)
      Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition Verbal Comprehension factor (WIAT-III)
    • ISSN:
      0161-1461
    • MEDLINE Info:
      NLM UID: 0323431
    • Publication Date:
      20200725
    • Publication Date:
      20200725
    • DOI:
      10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090
    • Accession Number:
      144650317
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      BAHR, R. H.; SILLIMAN, E. R.; BERNINGER, V. W. Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, [s. l.], v. 51, n. 3, p. 640–654, 2020. DOI 10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=144650317. Acesso em: 5 dez. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Bahr RH, Silliman ER, Berninger VW. Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools. 2020;51(3):640-654. doi:10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090
    • APA:
      Bahr, R. H., Silliman, E. R., & Berninger, V. W. (2020). Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 51(3), 640–654. https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Bahr, Ruth Huntley, Elaine R. Silliman, and Virginia W. Berninger. 2020. “Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers.” Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools 51 (3): 640–54. doi:10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090.
    • Harvard:
      Bahr, R. H., Silliman, E. R. and Berninger, V. W. (2020) ‘Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers’, Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 51(3), pp. 640–654. doi: 10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Bahr, RH, Silliman, ER & Berninger, VW 2020, ‘Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers’, Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 640–654, viewed 5 December 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Bahr, Ruth Huntley, et al. “Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers.” Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, vol. 51, no. 3, July 2020, pp. 640–654. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Bahr, Ruth Huntley, Elaine R. Silliman, and Virginia W. Berninger. “Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers.” Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools 51, no. 3 (July 2020): 640–54. doi:10.1044/2020_LSHSS-19-00090.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Bahr RH, Silliman ER, Berninger VW. Derivational Morphology Bridges Phonology and Orthography: Insights Into the Development of Word-Specific Spellings by Superior, Average, and Poor Spellers. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools [Internet]. 2020 Jul [cited 2020 Dec 5];51(3):640–54. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=144650317