Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya.

Item request has been placed! ×
Item request cannot be made. ×
loading   Processing Request
  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      Department of Chemistry, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
      Center for Traditional Medicine and Drug Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P.O. Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Antibiotics are among the most counterfeited anti-infectious medicines in developing countries. Amoxicillin is one of the commonly prescribed, affordable, and easily accessible antibiotic in Kenya. It is a broad-spectrum antibiotic hence commonly used in chemotherapy. This study sought to determine the quality and identify the various brands of amoxicillin and its combination amoxicillin/clavulanic acid marketed in Nairobi County. Nairobi is the capital city of Kenya, gateway for imports and exports, and the headquarters to most of the pharmaceutical distributors. Ten wards in Nairobi County representing different socioeconomic settings were purposively sampled for the study. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect background data on brands of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the market. A total of 106 different brands were found in the market: 85 were imports while 21 were locally manufactured. Fifty-three samples were analyzed with reference to the United States Pharmacopoeia. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid contents for oral suspensions were determined immediately after reconstitution and 7 days thereafter to determine their stability during the prescription period. On day seven, 23.1% (3 out of 13) of amoxicillin and 66.7% (8 out of 12) amoxicillin/clavulanic acid oral suspensions presented levels below recommended limits. Uniformity of weight for amoxicillin capsules noted 13.6% (3 out of 22) failure rate, while amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablets complied. Potency determination for all amoxicillin capsules analyzed were within required limits, but amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablets showed 33.3% (2 out of 6) noncompliance. For amoxicillin capsule and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid tablet dissolution tests, there was 10.5% (2 out of 19) and 50% (2 out of 4) noncompliance, respectively. Overall, 37.7% of the drugs analyzed failed to comply with the Pharmacopoeia. These results highlight the presence of poor-quality amoxicillin formulations in Nairobi County, affirming the need for regular postmarket surveillance to inform on the situation of antibiotic quality in the Kenyan market.
    • Journal Subset:
      Biomedical; Peer Reviewed; USA
    • ISSN:
      2314-6133
    • MEDLINE Info:
      NLM UID: 101600173
    • Publication Date:
      20200617
    • Publication Date:
      20200617
    • DOI:
      http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7091278
    • Accession Number:
      143761081
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      KOECH, L. C. et al. Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya. BioMed Research International, [s. l.], p. 1–14, 2020. DOI 10.1155/2020/7091278. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=143761081. Acesso em: 14 ago. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Koech LC, Irungu BN, Ng’ang’a MM, Ondicho JM, Keter LK. Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya. BioMed Research International. June 2020:1-14. doi:10.1155/2020/7091278
    • APA:
      Koech, L. C., Irungu, B. N., Ng’ang’a, M. M., Ondicho, J. M., & Keter, L. K. (2020). Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya. BioMed Research International, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7091278
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Koech, Lilian C., Beatrice N. Irungu, Margaret M. Ng’ang’a, Joyce M. Ondicho, and Lucia K. Keter. 2020. “Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya.” BioMed Research International, June, 1–14. doi:10.1155/2020/7091278.
    • Harvard:
      Koech, L. C. et al. (2020) ‘Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya’, BioMed Research International, pp. 1–14. doi: 10.1155/2020/7091278.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Koech, LC, Irungu, BN, Ng’ang’a, MM, Ondicho, JM & Keter, LK 2020, ‘Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya’, BioMed Research International, pp. 1–14, viewed 14 August 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Koech, Lilian C., et al. “Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya.” BioMed Research International, June 2020, pp. 1–14. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1155/2020/7091278.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Koech, Lilian C., Beatrice N. Irungu, Margaret M. Ng’ang’a, Joyce M. Ondicho, and Lucia K. Keter. “Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya.” BioMed Research International, June 13, 2020, 1–14. doi:10.1155/2020/7091278.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Koech LC, Irungu BN, Ng’ang’a MM, Ondicho JM, Keter LK. Quality and Brands of Amoxicillin Formulations in Nairobi, Kenya. BioMed Research International [Internet]. 2020 Jun 13 [cited 2020 Aug 14];1–14. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=143761081