Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016.

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  • Additional Information
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Objectives. To investigate a shigellosis outbreak in Genesee County, Michigan (including the City of Flint), and Saginaw County, Michigan, in 2016 and address community concerns about the role of the Flint water system. Methods. We met frequently with community members to understand concerns and develop the investigation. We surveyed households affected by the outbreak, analyzed Shigella isolate data, examined the geospatial distribution of cases, and reviewed available water quality data. Results. We surveyed 83 households containing 158 cases; median age was 10 years. Index case-patients from 55 of 83 households (66%) reported contact with a person outside their household who wore diapers or who had diarrhea in the week before becoming ill; results were similar regardless of household drinking water source. Genomic diversity was not consistent with a point source. In Flint, no space-time clustering was identified, and average free chlorine residual values remained above recommended levels throughout the outbreak period. Conclusions. The outbreak was most likely caused by person-to-person contact and not by the Flint water system. Consistent community engagement was essential to the design and implementation of the investigation.
    • Journal Subset:
      Biomedical; Core Nursing; Double Blind Peer Reviewed; Nursing; Peer Reviewed; Public Health; USA
    • ISSN:
      0090-0036
    • MEDLINE Info:
      NLM UID: 1254074
    • Publication Date:
      20200509
    • Publication Date:
      20200513
    • DOI:
      http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577
    • Accession Number:
      143074813
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      MCCLUNG, R. P. et al. Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016. American Journal of Public Health, [s. l.], v. 110, n. 6, p. 842–849, 2020. DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=143074813. Acesso em: 3 ago. 2020.
    • AMA:
      McClung RP, Karwowski M, Castillo C, et al. Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016. American Journal of Public Health. 2020;110(6):842-849. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577.
    • AMA11:
      McClung RP, Karwowski M, Castillo C, et al. Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016. American Journal of Public Health. 2020;110(6):842-849. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577
    • APA:
      McClung, R. P., Karwowski, M., Castillo, C., McFadden, J., Collier, S., Collins, J., Soehnlen, M., Dietrich, S., Trees, E., Wilt, G., Harrington, C., Miller, A., Adam, E., Reses, H., Cope, J., Fullerton, K., Hill, V., & Yoder, J. (2020). Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016. American Journal of Public Health, 110(6), 842–849. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      McClung, R. Paul, Mateusz Karwowski, Caroline Castillo, Jevon McFadden, Sarah Collier, Jim Collins, Marty Soehnlen, et al. 2020. “Shigella Sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016.” American Journal of Public Health 110 (6): 842–49. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577.
    • Harvard:
      McClung, R. P. et al. (2020) ‘Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016’, American Journal of Public Health, 110(6), pp. 842–849. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      McClung, RP, Karwowski, M, Castillo, C, McFadden, J, Collier, S, Collins, J, Soehnlen, M, Dietrich, S, Trees, E, Wilt, G, Harrington, C, Miller, A, Adam, E, Reses, H, Cope, J, Fullerton, K, Hill, V & Yoder, J 2020, ‘Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016’, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 842–849, viewed 3 August 2020, .
    • MLA:
      McClung, R.Paul, et al. “Shigella Sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 110, no. 6, June 2020, pp. 842–849. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      McClung, R. Paul, Mateusz Karwowski, Caroline Castillo, Jevon McFadden, Sarah Collier, Jim Collins, Marty Soehnlen, et al. “Shigella Sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016.” American Journal of Public Health 110, no. 6 (June 2020): 842–49. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305577.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      McClung RP, Karwowski M, Castillo C, McFadden J, Collier S, Collins J, et al. Shigella sonnei Outbreak Investigation During a Municipal Water Crisis—Genesee and Saginaw Counties, Michigan, 2016. American Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2020 Jun [cited 2020 Aug 3];110(6):842–9. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=rzh&AN=143074813