Racism, History of

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  • Author(s): Fredrickson, G.M.
  • Source:
    In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences Edition: Second Edition. 2015:852-856
  • Publication Information:
    Elsevier Ltd
  • Document Type:
    Book Chapter
  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    • Keywords:
      Antisemitism
      Civil rights
      Domination
      Empire
      Inequality
      Jewish history
      Oppression
      Persecution
      Race
      Racism
      Religion
      Religious intolerance
      Slavery
      Xenophobia
    • Abstract:
      Initially seen by historians as a theory of difference, racism is now usually seen as an ideology with an integral relationship to domination or exclusion. The most conspicuous forms of modern racism – white supremacy and antisemitism – have been studied separately. A general or comparative history could be based on a definition of racism as an ideology sanctioning the domination or exclusion of one ethnic group by another on the basis of difference believed to be hereditary and unalterable. Racism can, thus, be distinguished from xenophobia and religious intolerance. It emerged in the late medieval and early modern periods in conceptions of Jewishness as ancestry rather than belief and of blackness as a curse condemning Africans to servitude. The scientific revolution and the Enlightenment provided foundations for naturalistic racism. The struggle over slavery and the accelerated expansion of Europe into Africa and Asia brought color-coded racism to full consciousness in the nineteenth century. European antisemitic racism emerged in the context of modernity and the emancipation of the Jews. Racism climaxed during the twentieth century in the segregation of blacks in the American South and in South Africa, and in the genocidal assault on European Jewry.
    • ISBN:
      978-0-08-097086-8
    • ISBN:
      978-0-08-097087-5
    • ISBN:
      0-08-097086-9
    • ISBN:
      0-08-097087-7
    • Accession Number:
      10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4
    • Accession Number:
      B9780080970868620524
    • Copyright:
      Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      FREDRICKSON, G. M. Racism, History of. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, [s. l.], p. 852–856, 2015. DOI 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=B9780080970868620524. Acesso em: 14 ago. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Fredrickson GM. Racism, History of. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. January 2015:852-856. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4
    • APA:
      Fredrickson, G. M. (2015). Racism, History of. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 852–856. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Fredrickson, G.M. 2015. “Racism, History Of.” International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, January, 852–56. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4.
    • Harvard:
      Fredrickson, G. M. (2015) ‘Racism, History of’, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 852–856. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Fredrickson, GM 2015, ‘Racism, History of’, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 852–856, viewed 14 August 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Fredrickson, G. M. “Racism, History Of.” International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Jan. 2015, pp. 852–856. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Fredrickson, G.M. “Racism, History Of.” International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, January 1, 2015, 852–56. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.62052-4.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Fredrickson GM. Racism, History of. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences [Internet]. 2015 Jan 1 [cited 2020 Aug 14];852–6. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=B9780080970868620524