The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance

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  • Additional Information
    • Publication Information:
      USA: IEEE
    • Publication Date:
      2020
    • Abstract:
      The primary purpose of this article is to determine the impact of a simulated agent's transparency on human performance and related variables, such as response time, workload, and trust calibration. The agent supports participants as they complete a base defense task by managing a team of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles and serves as a decision aid to the human. Three conditions of transparency are explored. In condition 1, the agent displays only the basic information (map of vehicle location and proposed routes). In condition 2, the agent displays the basic information and an explanation of its reasoning. In condition 3, the agent displays the basic information, reasoning, and uncertainties involved in the plans. Results show that participants exhibit better performance and trust calibration in the high-transparency conditions without perceiving a significant increase in workload. However, response time also increased, likely due to the additional processing time needed for conditions with more information. Overall, our findings indicate that the increased agent transparency can improve human-agent decision making and performance, but with a small cost of the efficiency (timeliness) of task completion.
    • Author Affiliations:
      Department of Management, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
      System Engineering Technical Center, MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA, USA
      Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
      Department of Psychology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
      Human Research Engineering Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD, USA
      Human Research and Engineering Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Ft. Huachuca, AZ, USA
    • ISSN:
      2168-2291
      2168-2305
    • Accession Number:
      10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041
    • Rights:
      Copyright 2013, IEEE
    • AMSID:
      9069225
    • Date of Current Version:
      2020
    • Document Subtype:
      IEEE Transaction
    • Accession Number:
      edseee.9069225
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      STOWERS, K. et al. The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans. Human-Mach. Syst, [s. l.], v. 50, n. 3, p. 245–253, 2020. DOI 10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edseee&AN=edseee.9069225. Acesso em: 15 ago. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Stowers K, Kasdaglis N, Rupp MA, Newton OB, Chen JYC, Barnes MJ. The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans Human-Mach Syst. 2020;50(3):245-253. doi:10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041
    • APA:
      Stowers, K., Kasdaglis, N., Rupp, M. A., Newton, O. B., Chen, J. Y. C., & Barnes, M. J. (2020). The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans. Human-Mach. Syst, 50(3), 245–253. https://doi.org/10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Stowers, K., N. Kasdaglis, M.A. Rupp, O.B. Newton, J.Y.C. Chen, and M.J. Barnes. 2020. “The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance.” IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans. Human-Mach. Syst 50 (3): 245–53. doi:10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041.
    • Harvard:
      Stowers, K. et al. (2020) ‘The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance’, IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans. Human-Mach. Syst, 50(3), pp. 245–253. doi: 10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Stowers, K, Kasdaglis, N, Rupp, MA, Newton, OB, Chen, JYC & Barnes, MJ 2020, ‘The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance’, IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans. Human-Mach. Syst, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 245–253, viewed 15 August 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Stowers, K., et al. “The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance.” IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans. Human-Mach. Syst, vol. 50, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 245–253. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Stowers, K., N. Kasdaglis, M.A. Rupp, O.B. Newton, J.Y.C. Chen, and M.J. Barnes. “The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance.” IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans. Human-Mach. Syst 50, no. 3 (June 1, 2020): 245–53. doi:10.1109/THMS.2020.2978041.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Stowers K, Kasdaglis N, Rupp MA, Newton OB, Chen JYC, Barnes MJ. The IMPACT of Agent Transparency on Human Performance. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on, IEEE Trans Human-Mach Syst [Internet]. 2020 Jun 1 [cited 2020 Aug 15];50(3):245–53. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edseee&AN=edseee.9069225