Chapter 2: Discourses on development in Malaysia.

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      The article discuss the predominance of development seen as a two-stage model in one country highly dedicated to development, namely Malaysia. The government evidently puts great efforts into making Malaysia into a "modern, developed country." Unquestionably the gross domestic product for the past years does show impressive growth. The government's early developmental efforts, aiming to improve the economic situation of primarily the indigenous population, were reflected in the regional development plans initiated in the 1970s. These plans were supposed to change the physical and economic structure of what were considered to be less developed areas. The term "urban development," which became widespread at the beginning of this century, connotes similarly a physical, spatial process of constructing modern installations. In Malaysia, social values such as increased standards of living and equitable growth have commonly been set as the ultimate goals of planning; in daily speech and implementation, the physical and visual aspects of a plan are often emphasized.